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Home / Research & Conservation / Research Grant /. Know What Publication Style To Make Use Of

Decide which Journal(s) you will want to submit to and download their manuscript composition guidelines from their websites. Determine which publication style is suitable for the Journal and consistently follow that style throughout the manuscript that is entire. As an example, Soundings uses APA style (American Psychological Association). A number of the more commonly used style manuals include:

Sections of the Paper

Pretty much all research papers are comprised of seven sections that are separate an abstract, introduction, hypothesis, materials & methods, results, discussion, and reference section.

An abstract is a concise paragraph that is single associated with completed work whereby your reader can learn the explanation behind the research, general approach to the situation, pertinent results, and important conclusions. The abstract is the only text in a research paper to be written without needing paragraphs in order to separate major points. Summarize the research succinctly, making use of the past tense, complete sentences and grammar that is correct. Through the following elements:

  • Function of the study – hypothesis, overall question, objective (make an effort to define in one single sentence)
  • Model organism or system and description that is brief of experiment (try to define in one sentence)
  • Results, including specific quantitative data and link between statistical analyses
  • Important conclusions or questions that follow through the s that are experiment(


The objective of an introduction is always to acquaint the reader with all the rationale behind the job. Provide a whole literary summary of the info known concerning the topic (that both supports and contrasts your hypothesis) placing your work in a theoretical context which enables the reader to comprehend and appreciate your objectives. Describe the importance (significance) associated with the study and exactly why it offers value. Defend the model and supply a rationale. Explain why you selected this organism that is particular system? What exactly are its advantages/disadvantages? You may comment on its suitability from a theoretical point of view as well as indicate practical reasons for using it.

Hypothesis (es)

A hypothesis is an educated guess on how things work. Your hypothesis should always be constructed in a fashion that helps you answr fully your research that is original question be stated in a manner that can be easily measured. Your quest must have addressed whether your hypothesis is true or false. Describe the reasoning and references that led you to make each hypothesis.

Materials and Methods

Materials and methods could be reported under separate subheadings in this section or can together be incorporated. The objective is to document all specialized materials and general procedures so that another individual may use some or most of the methods in another study or judge the merit that is scientific of work. It isn’t to be one step by step description of whatever you did, nor is a methods section a couple of instructions. Omit all information that is explanatory background, saving this for the discussion. Also avoid including information that is irrelevant to a third party, such as for instance what color ice bucket you used, or which individual logged in the data. Typically, the person that is third voice is employed to publish this section.

The purpose of a results section would be to provide and illustrate your findings using figures and tables which will portray the outcomes most effectively. This section must certanly be a completely objective report of this results and any interpretation of what these results indicate should always be reserved when it comes to for the discussion section. Describe every one of your results, pointing the reader to observations that are most relevant, however, the text should complement figures and/or tables, not repeat the same information. If applicable, describe outcomes of control experiments and include observations that aren’t presented in a figure that is formal table. Never include raw data or intermediate calculations buy essay now in a research paper. Usually do not present the data that are same than once. Use the past tense once you make reference to your results and put everything in a logical order.


The discussion section can be used to produce an interpretation of the results and support your conclusions evidence that is using your experiment and, if appropriate, from other published literature. As you describe important computer data be sure to identify mechanisms that could take into account the outcomes. In the event the results vary from your expectations, explain why that could have happened. Should your results agree, then describe the theory that the evidence supported. It really is never appropriate to simply state that the info agreed with expectations, and allow it to drop. Decide if the experimental design was properly controlled an if it adequately addressed the hypothesis(es). Describe if each hypothesis was supported, rejected, or if a determination could not be created using confidence, and expand upon the mechanisms that deemed it so. Compare and contrast literature review findings to your research findings and attempt to offer alternative explanations if at all possible. One experiment will not answer an question that is overall so keeping the picture as a whole in mind, identify what questions remain and suggest areas that require further study.

Literature Cited

List all literature cited in your paper, in alphabetical order, by first author. Only use primary literature (original research articles authored by the first investigators).